Tuesday, May 11, 2021

History Of Himachal Pradesh In English

   History Of Himachal Pradesh In English 

||Ancient History Of Himachal Pradesh HP  In English||Medieval History Of Himachal Pradesh In English||Modern History Of Himachal Pradesh In English||

History Of Himachal Pradesh In English



 Source Of HP History :-

H.P. Through the study of the history of ancient times, coins, inscriptions, literature, buildings, travelogues and genealogies, we can get information which is available in limited quantity. The details of which are as follows-

(1) Literature-

  • Puran-Vishnu Purana, Markandeya Purana, Skanda Purana mention the inhabitants of this region.
  • The Ramayana, Mahabharata and Rigveda give details of the tribes inhabiting the Himalayas.
  • The regions of Himachal are described in Panini's Ashtadhyayi, Vrhatsamhita, Kalidasa's Raghuvansha, Visakhadatta's Mudrarakshas and Kalhan's Rajatarangini (which chronicles Kashmir) in 1149–50.
  • There is evidence of Ferozeshah Tughlaq's attack on the Nagarkot fort at Tarikh-e-Firozshahi and Tithi-e-Farista. Information about the Kangra invasion of Jahangir in Tujuk-e-Jahangiri and the invasion of the Shivalik of Timur Lang from Tujuk-e-Taimuri is obtained.

(ii) coins -hikpr. The work of searching for coins in H.P. After the establishment of the State Museum, momentum began to pick up. The Bhuri Singh Museum and State Museum Shimla have coins of the Trigarta, Oudumbar, Kuluta and Kunind dynasties. 12 coins kept in Shimla State Museum have been received from Arki. 21 coins of Apollodotes have been obtained from village Tappameva in Hamirpur. Some Indo-Greek coins have been obtained from Lachodi and Charol of Chamba. The oldest coinage of Kullu was commissioned in the first century by Raja Virayas.

(iii) Inscription / Tamra Patra - The inscriptions of Pathyar and Kanihara of Kangra, the inscription of the cave of Sunpur at Hatkoti, the inscription of Salunu of Mandi, H.P. You can get information about the socio-economic activities of ancient times. The Bhuri Singh Museum Chamba holds 36 inscriptions received from Chamba which are written in the Sharda and Tankari scripts. The information about the Gupta period is obtained from the Shalaru records of Kullu. There is an inscription of Ashoka in the Jaunsar-Bawar region located at the confluence of the Tons and the Yamuna River. The seventh-century Mahasamanta in Nirmand is the copper sheet of Samudrasena.

(iv) Building -The Kangra Fort, the temples of Bharmour, the ruins of Sirmauri Tal, the temples of Kamru, Naggar, Tabo and Ki Buddhist Vihara also provide information about the history of ancient Himachal.

(v) Genealogies - Moorcraft first worked towards the genealogies and helped in finding the genealogies of the kings of Kangra. Captain Harcourt received the lineage of Kullu. Later Cunningham discovered the genealogies of the kings of Kangra, Chamba, Mandi, Suket and Nurpur.

vi) Travelogue - H.P. The most archaic description of Ptolemy is given in which the description of Kulindas is given. The Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang stayed in India until 630–644 AD. During this time he also came to Kullu and Trigarta. Thomas Koryat and William Finch, during the time of Jahangir. Traveled to Forster 1783, William Moorecraft 1820-1822, Major Archer wrote about Himachal in the 1829 travelogue. Also Alberuni (1030) (with Mahmud Ghaznavi) has described this region.


👉 Prehistoric and Vedic Period

(a) Pre-historic Himachal - The script was not developed in pre-historic times. We do not find any written source of human beings of this time. We depended only on archaeological sources for this period. This period is divided into Palaeolithic period (30 lakh to 10 thousand BC), Midolithic period (1000BC-4000BC) and Neolithic period (7000BC-1000BC) -

The Proto-historic period is called the period in which the script was there, but it has not been read yet, like Harappa

(1) Palaeolithic sources - Olaf Prufer in Nalagarh on the right of Sirsa, a tributary of Sutlej, in 1951, has received stone tools such as hooves etc. In 1955, B.B. Lal has obtained samples of equipment of 72 types of Adisohan type from Guler, Dehra, Dhaliara and Kangra. Among them are chapras, hand axes and Vedani. Dr. GC Mahapatra has also found the remains of stone tools of the post-Stone Age (30 lakh-4 lakh years ago) in the Sirsa river valley and Kangra. Remnants of this period have been found in 1974 in the Suketi area of ​​Markanda River at Sirmour.


 (2) Medieval and Neolithic sources - In India, this period (10000BC-1000BC) is considered one, while it is divided into Europe. Permanent agriculture and civilizations originated during this period. Evidence of Neolithic age has been found at Kotla-Nihang in Ropar.

In the foothills of the Saraswati-Yamuna rivers, brown images have been found made in pottery.

(3) Ancient (at the time of Indus Civilization) residents of Himachal -

  • Cole - Cole H.P. Are natives of who laid the foundation of Neolithic culture. In the Western Himalayas, the present-day Koli, Hali, Doom, Chanal, Badhi etc. are from the Kol caste. H.P. of Cole caste Settling in is found from the rocks of the Chandeshwar valley of Kumaon.
  • Kirat- Kirat (Mongol) was the second caste to come here after the Kol caste. The sage Vashistha calls him Shishnadeva (the worshiper of the linga deity). In the Mahabharata, rents are said to be residents of the Himalayas. Chapter 140 of Vanaparva (Mahabharata) describes his residence. The kirats were happy to drive them from the mountainous foothills to the high mountains. Manu has also described the rents. Kinnars are mentioned in Kalidasa's Raghuvansh.
  • Nagas - People of this caste used to live everywhere in the hills of Himachal. The Panchavakatra Shiva temple in Mandi has 10 feet high idols of serpents. The snake deity is depicted in the seals of the Harappan civilization. In the Mahabharata, Arjuna married Gandharva to Naga king Vasuki's Naga girl named Ullopi. Vasuki Nag is worshiped in Chamba, Kullu etc. Takshak Nag established the Nag state in the Himalayas.
  • Khas- The third branch of Aryans which spread across the Himalayas from Central Asia through Kashmir, is called Khash caste. His residence is found in a village named Khashkandi, Khashdhar in Rohnu region.

 (4) Ancient deity-

  • Shiva - The evidence of worship of such a god is found by the initial residents of Himachal, who are similar to Shiva. An example of this is the temple of Manimahesh, Kinnar Kailash, Mahasu Devta. The oldest religion of Himachal is Shaivism. Evidence of the worship of Pashupati Devta is found in the Indus Valley Civilization.
  •  Shakti-HP In addition to Shiva worship, Shakti Puja was also done. It became famous in the mythological period by the names Durga, Kali, Amba and Parvati. Shakti Devi in ​​Chhatrani, Lakshana Devi in ​​Bharmour, Brajeshwari Devi Temple, Jwalamukhi, Hidimba Devi Kullu, Nainadevi Bilaspur, Hateshwari Devi Hatkoti and Bhimakali Sarahan H.P. There is ancient evidence of worshiping Shakti.
  • Nag Devta - Ancient evidence of many temples and places of worship of Nag Devta. Received in

(5) Arya and Himachal - A branch of Aryans entered India via Central Asia. These were called Vedic Aryans. These people brought their livestock, deities and household items and proceeded towards Sapta Sidhu region. It took them 400 years to settle down completely. While moving from Sapta Sindhu (Punjab) to Shivalik, the Vedic Aryans encountered the ancient inhabitants of Kol, Kirat and Naga caste here. There were forts. According to the Rigveda, there was a 40-year war between the Dasyu king Shambar and the Arya king Divodas. In the end, Divodas killed Shambar at a place called Udbraj. The Aryans forced Kol, Kiratas and Nagas to move from the lower valleys to the inaccessible hills. Rishi Bharadwaj was the chief advisor to the Arya king Divodas.


II. Vedic Period-

(1) Vedic Aryans - Yayati, the powerful king of Vedic Aryans, laid the foundation of his kingdom on the banks of river Saraswati. After that his son Puru became the ruler of this state.

  • Dusharag War - According to Rigveda, the war of Sudas, son of Divodas, took place between ten Arya and non-Aryan kings, which is called Dusharag war. Sudas's army was led by his mentor and minister Vasishtha, while the other ten kings' armies were led by Vishwamitra. Sudas's army defeated the army of ten kings (Puru kingdom). After this Sudas became the most powerful king of the Rigvedic period. This war took place on the banks of river Ravi.

(2) Vedic sage - Mandi is associated with Mandavya sage, Bilaspur with Vyasa sage, Nirmand with Parashurama, Manali with Manu sage and Vashishta Kund hot water glasses located near Manikaran in Kullu valley are associated with Vedic sage Vashistha. .

 

  •  Jamadagni Rishi - Jamadagni Rishi is worshiped in the village of Malana as the deity of Jamlu. The place where the sage Jamdagni resided was called Jamu ka dune. It is located near Renuka in Sirmaur district. Jamadagni was the wife of the sage Renuka. The temple of Parasurama of Jamadagni Maharishi is located near Renuka Lake. Agastya and Gautam Rishis also built their ashrams around Renuka and went to reside at other places in the latter.
  •  Sage Parasurama - When the Vedic Arya king Sahasrarajun (Kirtavirya) reached Renuka, he was welcomed by the sage Jamadagni there. Sahastrajarjuna demanded the Kamadhenu cow from the sage Jamadagni, which the sage refused to give. Enraged at this, he destroyed the ashram of the sage Jamadagni and looted his cows. Parashurama formed a union of local kings and castes and attacked and killed them. The sons of Sahasrarajun killed the sage Jamadagni. This provoked Parashurama and started attacking all the Kshatriyas.


(3) Mahabharata period and H.P. Himachal has been called Himavant in the four ancient districts of the Rigveda. In the Mahabharata, the Pandavas spent an unknown period of time in the upper hills of Himachal. Bhimsen married the total goddess Hidimba of Kullu during the exile period. Trigarta king Susharma fought on behalf of the Kauravas in the Mahabharata war. The rulers of Kashmir, Oudumbar and Trigarta taxed Yudhishthira. The Kulind princely state had accepted the subjection of the Pandavas. In the Mahabharata, the description of 4 districts, Trigat, Oudumbar, Kulind and Kulut is found.

  • Oudumbar- According to Mahabharata, Oudumbar was a descendant of Vishwamitra who is related to Kaushik Gautra. Oudumbar state coins have been found in the areas of Kangra, Pathankot, Jwalamukhi, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur confirming their habitat. These people used to worship Shiva. A description of the Oudumbar caste is also found in the Ganpath of Panini. Due to the multiplicity of the Adumbar tree, this district is called Oudumbar. In the Brahmi and Kharoshthi script the word Mahadevasa is found on the coins of Oudumbars which symbolize 'Mahadev'. The trident is also inscribed on the coins. Oudumbars carried copper and silver coins. Oudumbar was a devotee of Shiva and a sheepman who may have had a connection with the Gaddi tribe of Chamba.
  • Trigart - The district of Trigart was founded by Bhumichand. Susarma was the 231st king of his generation. Susharma Chandra assisted the Kauravas in the Mahabharata war. Susharma Chandra attacked the Matsya king Virat, who was his neighboring kingdom, giving shelter to the Pandavas in the unknown. Trigarte was a stretch between the rivers Ravi, Vyas and Sutlej. Susharma Chandra built the Kangra Fort and made Nagarkot its capital. Kanishka described the 6 state groups as part of the Trigarta. Kaurava Shakti, Jalmani, Janaki, Brahmagupta, Dandki and Kondopratha were parts of Trigarta. Panini has called Trigarta an Ordnance Association which means - the people living on the war. Trigarta is also mentioned in the Ashtadhyayi of Panini, Rajatarangini of Kalhana, Vishnu Purana, Brihatsamhita and Dronaparva of Mahabharata.
  •  Kullut - The Kullut kingdom was the area above the Beas river, which is found in the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Vrhatasamhita, Markandeya Purana, Mudrarakshas and Matsya Purana. Its ancient capital was Naggar, which is found in Panini's Katreyadi Ganga. The oldest coinage in the Kullu Valley is known as Raja Viryas in 100 AD. It is written in Prakrit and Kharoshthi language. The princely state of Kullut was founded by Vihangamani Pal, who came from Prayag (Allahabad).
  • Kulind-According to Mahabharata, Kulind was conquered by Arjuna. The Kulind princely state was the land between Vyas, Sutlej and Yamuna which included the areas of Sirmaur, Shimla, Ambala and Saharanpur. The kunait or kainait of the present day is believed to be related to Kulind. The name of King Amoghbhuti is inscribed on the silver coin of Kulind. The mythical name of river Yamuna is Kalindi and the area along with it is called Kulind. Due to the abundance of Kulind (Behera) trees in this region, this district must have also got its name Kulind. In the Mahabharata, Arjuna conquered the Kulindas. Kulind Raja Subahu presented gifts to Yudhishthira in the Rajasuya Yajna. Kulindas have also received the Bhagavata Chatreshwar Mahatmaan posture of the second century. The Kulindas had a republican system of governance. The Kulindas, along with the Punjab warriors and Arjunayan, had succeeded in driving away the Kushanas.

👉 Mauryan and post-Mauryan period

(1) Mauryakala

  • Alexander's invasion - Alexander invaded India in 326 BC and reached the Vyas river. Alexander's troops refused to go beyond the Vyas river. The chief of this was his commander Koinos. Alexander built twelve stupas on the banks of the Vyas river as a sign of his India expedition, which have now been destroyed.
  • Chandragupta Maurya - Chandragupta Maurya, along with the hill king Parvatak and his Prime Minister Chanakya, took steps towards the establishment of the Maurya Empire. The treaty between Parvatak and Chanakya is found in Visakhadatta's Mudrarakshas and the Jain texts Appendix. According to Mudrarakshas Chandragupta recruited Kirat and Khashs in his army. The mountain must have been a three-way king. Among the hill kings, only King Chitravarma of Kulut and Raja Pushkaraksha of Kashmir opposed Chandragupta. 323 BC with the help of Chanakya. In Chandragupta destroyed the Nand Dynasty and sat on the throne and established the Maurya Empire. The kingdom of Kulind was called Shirmourya in the Mauryan period because the Kulind state was situated at the apex of the Maurya Empire. Later, it became the Sirmour Sirmour.
  • Ashoka- The grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, Ashoka, sent Majhim and 4 Buddhist monks to propagate Buddhism in the Himalayas. According to Hensong, Ashoka had built Buddhist stupas at Kullu and Kangra. Ashoka-built inscriptions have been found at Kalath in Kullu and Chaitadu in Kangra. The Ashoka-era inscriptions have been found in Kalsi (Uttarakhand). In the promotion of Buddhism in the Himalayan region, Buddhism was supported by 4 Buddhist monks Kassapgota, Dhundhobhisara, Sahadeva and Mulakdev. H.P. In 242 BC, Buddhism was entered. The Mauryan kingdom of Kapatan started around 210 BC, which was completed by the establishment of the Shug Dynasty in 185 BC.
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(i i) Mauryatara period (Shug, Kushan dynasty) - After the fall of the deaths the Sunga dynasty could not keep the hill republics under them and they became independent. The Shakas invasion began around the first century BCE. In the reign of Kanishka, the most prominent king of the Kushanas after the Shakas, the hill states surrendered and accepted Kanishka's subjugation. 40 Kushan coins have been found on the Kalka-Kasauli road. A coin of Kanishka has been found at Kanihara in Kangra. The hill kings were free to run their coins with the Kushanas. In the late second and early third centuries, the Yudhudayas, Arjunayan (Punjab) and Kulindas, together with the Kushans' weakening power, pushed the Kushanas across the Sutlej and carried coins as a token of their independence.

👉 Gupta period

Srigupta's grandson Chandragupta I laid the foundation of the Gupta Empire in 319 AD. Napoleon 'Samudragupta of India conquered the mountainous districts in 340 AD and acquired the suzerainty over him. From the Allahabad (Prayag) commendation of Harishan, Bhadra, Trigarta, Oudumbar, Samudragupta's victory over the Kullut and Kartikpur districts finds mention. All the kings accepted his subjugation and made him like a vassal. Kulind district is not mentioned in it. Shadad He must have come under the Gupta Empire at the time of Chandragupta I. Samudragupta conferred his sovereignty over the hill districts and gave him the freedom to maintain inner freedom, strength and security. Skandagupta, the son of Kumar Gupta, defeated the Huns and maintained the prestige of the Gupta empire. After Skandagupta, the influence of the Gupta Empire began to decline and was disbanded. The invasion of the Huns was the main reason for the decline of the Gupta Empire. Kalidas composed Kumarasambhava and Meghdoot in this period, in which the description of the Himalayas is found. During the Gupta period, the influence of Hinduism increased in the mountainous regions and many temples were built. Get a description of. During the Gupta period, the influence of Hinduism increased in the mountainous regions and many temples were built. Get a description of. During the Gupta period, the influence of Hinduism increased in the mountainous regions and many temples were built.

👉 Gupta period (Hoon, Harshavardhana)

(i) Hunas Invasion- In 521 AD, Hunas invaded the western Himalayas under the leadership of Toraman. Even before this, between 480-90, the Toramas invaded the Gupta Empire. After the Toraman, his son Mihirkul, who was called Attila of India, took over the region from Punjab to Central India in 525 AD. Magadha emperors Narasimha Baladitya and Yashovarman defeated Mihirkul and forced him to flee to Kashmir. The Gujjars consider themselves descendants of the Hunas.

(ii) Harsh Vardhan and Hiuensong-Harshavardhana ascended the throne of India in 606 AD. Pataliputra, Thaneshwar and Kannauj were the main centers of governance during his reign. During his reign, Hiuen Tsang traveled to India from 629-644 AD. Hieun Tsang came to Jalandhar (the capital of Jalandhar-Trigarta) in 635 AD and was the guest of King Uitas (Udima) for 4 months. He stayed in Jalandhar in 643 AD at the time of China's return to India. Hiuen Tsang had traveled to Kullu, Lahaul and Sirmaur after Jalandhar. Harshavardhana died in 647 AD. Kalhan's book Rajatarangini gives details of the war between King Lalitaditya of Kashmir and Yashovarman. Details of Yashovarman's influence on Trigarta, Brahmapura (Chamba) and other mountainous regions are found. In the ninth century, the state of Kashmir became the authority of the Trigarta and Upper Sutlej regions. Hiuen Tsang had the capital of Jalandhar (She lan-Talo), Kulut, Sirmaur (Shatrughan), Sirmauri Tal, Has given a detailed description of the journey to Lahaul (Lo-Oo-Lo). The state of Chamba may have been under Trigarta at that time. He has mentioned the prevalence of Mahayana religion in his book Si-u Ki. The description of Samudrasena, the king of Spiti, is found in the copperplate of Nirmand. H.P. In addition to Trigarta and Kullut, small groups of chieftains emerged who were called Thakurs and Rana. In the post-Gupta period the Thakurs' reign was called Apathakurai and the jurisdiction was Ukkurai. The jurisdiction of the Ranaas was called Rahun. Rajputs who came from the plains between the seventh and tenth centuries established their dynasties in Himachal. They brought the Rana and Thakurs to the status of their feudal lords. In addition to Trigarta and Kullut, small groups of chieftains emerged who were called Thakurs and Rana. In the post-Gupta period the Thakurs' reign was called Apathakurai and the jurisdiction was Ukukurai. The jurisdiction of the Ranaas was called Rahun. Rajputs who came from the plains between the seventh and tenth centuries established their dynasties in Himachal. They brought the Rana and the Thakurs to the status of their feudal lords.


Medieval history :-

(i)  Himachal pradesh history - Mahmud Ghaznavi attacked India 17 times. Mahmud Ghaznavi could not control most parts of Kangra except Nagercoat by 1023. After the death of Trilochan Pal and his son Bhim Pal, Kangra came under the Turks in 1026 AD.

(ii) Himachal pradesh history -

1. Muhammad bin Tughluq - Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325-1351 AD) sent an army in 1337 AD to defeat King Prithvi Chand of Nagerkot, which he himself led.

2. Ferozeshah Tughlaq - Ferozeshah Tughlaq (1351-1388 AD) attacked and besieged Nagercoat in 1361 AD to teach a lesson to King Rupchand of Kangra. King Roopchand and Ferozeshah Tughlaq were later reconciled and the siege was lifted from Nagerkot. Roopchand accepted the subjection of Ferozeshah Tughlaq.

(iii) The invasion of Timurlung (Himachal pradesh history)  - In 1398 AD, the invasion of Mongols was led by Timurlang. At the time of Timurlang's invasion, the king of Kangra was Meghchand. At the time of Timurlung's invasion, the ruler of Hindur (Nalagarh) was Alamchand who assisted Timurlang, and consequently Timurlung proceeded without harming Hindur.


(iv) Mughal rule (Himachal pradesh history)  -

1. Babur - Babur established his outpost in 'Malout' near Kangra in 1525. Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the first war of Panipat in 1526 AD and established Mughal rule in India.

2. Akbar - Akbar sent his army to Nurpur to capture Sikandar Shah in 1526 AD as Raja Bhaktmal of Nurpur had friendship with Sikander Shah. Akbar used to hold his children or relatives as hostages in the court to accept his subjugation to the hill kings. Akbar made King Jaichand of Kangra hostage. Jaichand's son Bidhichand rebelled against Akbar with King Takhtmal of Nurpur. Akbar sent Birbal along with Hussain Quli Khan to suppress this rebellion. Akbar appointed Todarmal in 1572 AD to establish a royal zamindari, taking over the land of the hill princely states.

3. Jahangir - Jahangir ascended the throne in 1605 AD. King Vidichand of Kangra died in 1605 AD and his son Trilokchand ascended the throne. Jahangir sent Raja Surajmal and Sheikh Farid Murtaza Khan of Nurpur (Dhameri) to capture Kangra in 1615 AD but postponed the plan to capture the Kangra fort after the two disputed and Murtaza Khan died. Gone Jahangir again sent forces to conquer Kangra under the leadership of Raja Suraj Mal of Nurpur and Shah Quli Khan Mohammad Taki in 1617 AD. Due to a quarrel between King Surajmal and Shah Quli Khan, Kuli Khan was recalled. King Surajmal revolted against the Mughals. Jahangir sent Raja Rai Vikramjit and Abdul Aziz to suppress Surajmal's rebellion. King Surajmal took refuge in Mankot and Taragarh Fort, which was under the Chamba princely state.

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4. Shah Jahan - Nawab Asadullah Khan and Koch Kulikhan became Mughal fortresses of Kangra Fort during the reign of Shah Jahan. Koch Kulikhan remained a Mughal fortress for 17 years. He was buried near the river Ganges. King Mandhata Prakash of Sirmaur was a contemporary of Shah Jahan. He assisted the Garhwal expedition of the Mughals many times.

5. Aurangzeb - During the reign of Aurangzeb, the Mughal fortresses of Kangra district were Syed Hussain Khan, Hasan Abdullah Khan and Nawab Syed Khalilullah Khan. Aurangzeb's contemporary was Subhang Prakash, the king of Sirmaur. In 1678 AD, Raja Chatar Singh of Chamba refused Mane's order to demolish all the temples of Chamba of Aurangzeb.


6. The fall of the Mughals and the arrogance - After the death of Aurangzeb, the decline of the Mughals started. Ahmad Shah Durrani attacked Punjab 10 times between 1748 and 1788 AD and broke the back of the Mughals. King Ghamandchand took advantage of this opportunity and captured the areas of Kangra and Doab. The Kangra Fort was still with the Mughals. Nawab Saif Ali Khan was the last Mughal fortress of Kangra Fort. Ahmad Shah Durrani made Ghamchand to be the Nazim of Jalandhar Doab in 1759 AD. The area from Ghatmand to Sutlej to Ravi was ruled unanimously.


Modern Himachal History :-
(i) Sikh - Guru Nanak Dev ji traveled to Kangra, Jwalamukhi, Kullu, Sirmaur and Lahaul-Spiti. Fifth Sikh Guru Arjun Dev Ji sent Bhai Kaliyana to the hill states to collect donations for the construction of Harminder Sahib (Golden Temple). Sixth Guru Hargobind Ji built Kiratpur on the land given under the gifts of the king of Bilaspur (Kahlur). The ninth Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji took the land from Kahlur (Bilaspur) and established the village of Makhowal, which was later called Anandpur Sahib.

1. Guru Govind Singh -There was a feud between Guru Govind Singh and King Bhimchand of Kahlur over the white elephant which was given by the queen of Assam, Ratan Rai. Guru Govind Singh lived in Paonta Sahib for 5 years and composed the Dasam Granth. Guru Govind Singh and Raja Bhimchand of Kahlur; A battle of 'Bhagani Sahib' was fought in 1686 AD between Fateh Shah of Garhwal and Raja Harichand of Hondur, in which only Guru Gobind Singh was victorious. King Harichand of Hondur (Nalagarh) died by the arrow of Guru Govind Singh. After the war, Guru Gobind Singh returned the land to Harichand's successor and his relations with Bhimchand (Kahlur) also became sweet. King Bhimchand sought help from Guru Govind Singh against the Mughals. Guru Gobind Singh defeated the Mughals in Nadaun. Guru Govind Singh traveled to Mandi and Kullu during the time of King Siddhasen of Mandi. Guru Gobind Singh on 13 April 1699 AD On the day of Baisakhi, Khalsa Panth was established in Anandpur Sahib (Makhowal) with 80 thousand soldiers. Guru Gobind Singh ji died in Nanded (Maharashtra) in 1708 AD. After the death of Banda Bahadur, the Sikhs were divided into 12 misals.

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2. Kangra Fort, Sansarchand, Gorkhe and Maharaja Ranjit Singh - King Ghamandchand defeated Jassa Singh Ramgarhia. Jamsa Singh Ramgarhia was the first Sikh to invade the hills of Kangra. After the death of Ghamchand, Sansarchand II, with the help of Jai Singh Kanhaiya, took the Kangra Fort from the Mughals in 1782 AD. Jaisingh Kanhaiya took the Kangra Fort in his possession in 1783 and refused to give it to Sansarchand. Jaisingh Kanhaiya returned the Kangra Fort to Sansarchand in 1785 AD.

(A) Sansarchand - Sansarchand-II was the most powerful king of Kangra. He became the king of Kangra in 1775 AD. He defeated the king of Chamba in the battle of 'Nerti Shahpur' in 1786 AD. The period up to 1805 AD in the year 1786 was the golden period for Sansarchand. He captured Kangra Fort in 1787 AD. Sansarchand attacked Kahlur (Bilaspur) in 1794 AD. This attack became the beginning of his downfall. The king of Kahlur invited Gorkha Amar Singh Thapa to defeat King Sansarchand through the union of hill rulers.

(B) Gorkha - Gorkha general Amar Singh Thapa had occupied the 30 Hills princely states of Kumaon, Garhwal, Sirmaur and Shimla by 1804 AD. On 1806 AD, Amar Singh Thapa defeated Sansarchand at Mahalmoris (Hamirpur). Sansarchand took refuge in Kangra district, he lived there for 4 years. Amar Singh Thapa had laid siege to Kangra Fort for 4 years, Sansarchand went to Jwalamukhi in 1809 and sought help from Maharaja Ranjit Singh. A volcanic treaty was signed between the two in 1809 AD.

(C) Maharaja Ranjit Singh - In 1809 AD, Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked the Gorkhas, defeated Amar Singh Thapa and pushed him to the east of Sutlej. Sansarchand gave Maharaja Ranjit Singh 66 villages and Kangra Fort in return for help. Desa Singh Majithia was made the Kangra Fort and Kangra's Nazim in 1809 AD by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Maharaja Ranjit Singh took Haripur (Guler) later in 1813 AD to Nurpur and Jaswan. Dattapur in 1818, defeated Kutlahar in 1825. After the death of Sansar Chand in 1823, Anirudh Chand was allowed to sit on the throne in lieu of the one lakh rupees. Anirudh Chand refused Ranjit Singh to marry his daughter to the son of King Dhyan Singh of Jammu and sought refuge from the British. In 1839 AD, an army mandi was sent under the leadership of Vanchura and another Kullu was sent. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1839 AD, the Sikhs began to decline.

(ii) English (British) -

1. British and Gorkha - The Gorkhas together with King Mahanchand of Kahlur defeated Sansarchand in 1806. Amar Singh Thapa captured Rani Jagat Singh of the Bhagal princely state in 1809 AD. Amar Singh Thapa sent his son Ranjore Singh to attack Sirmaur. King Karmaprakash (Sirmour) saved his life by running 'Bhuria' (Ambala). Nahan and Jataka fort were occupied by Gorkhas. In 1810, the Gorkhas occupied Hindur, Jubbal and Pandra regions. Amar Singh Thapa invaded the state of Bushehr in 1811 AD. Amar Singh Thapa remained at Rampur till 1813 AD, after which the Arki returned.

(A) Conflict of Gorkha and British interests - In 1813 AD Amar Singh Thapa wanted to capture 6 villages of Sirhind. Out of which 2 villages were under the British-Sikhs. This caused controversy in both. Second, the business interests of the British started coming to Gorkha because they had important trade with Tibet. The Gorkhas had captured almost all the passes and routes leading to Tibet, so the Gorkha-British war began to become inevitable. The British declared war on the Gorkhas on 1 November 1814.

(B) Gorkha-British War - The British fought a war against the Gorkhas under the leadership of Major General David Ochterlony and Major General Rollo Gillespie. Major Gillespie defeated the Gorkha army at Kalinga Fort with 4400 soldiers led by Balabhadra Thapa. Ranjore Singh, son of Amar Singh Thapa, went to the Jataka fort from Nahan and caused heavy damage to the English army. The princely state of Kahlur was initially with the Gorkhas, causing the Gorkhas to cause heavy losses to the British forces at many places. The British along with the chieftain of Bilaspur built a road from Kandri to Nahan. The British invaded Arki on 16 January 1815 under the leadership of David Akterlony. Amar Singh Thapa went to the Maloun Fort, which led to the British occupation of the fort of Taragarh, Ramgarh.

(C) Gorkha Defeat - In Jubbal State, the British, along with Dangi Wazir and Primu, forced 100 Gorkhas to lay down their arms at Chaupal on 12 March 1815. After the victory of Chaupal, 'Robbinagar Fort', which was occupied by Ranjore Singh Thapa, was attacked by the British. The armies of the Bushehr princely state along with Tikam Das, Badri and Dangi Wazir, along with the British, drove the Gorkhas away from the 'Rabinagarh Fort'. In Rampur-Kotgarh, the combined forces of Bushar and Kullu forced the Gorkhas to lay down their arms near 'Saran-ka-Tibba'. The British formed a front with the king of Hondur, Ramsharan and the king of Kahlur. Amarsingh Thapa had to flee from Ramgarh and take refuge in the Maloun Fort. The death of Bhakti Thapa (the brave chieftain of the Gorkhas) in Maloun Fort caused huge damage to the Gorkhas. The defeat of Kumaon and the reluctance of his soldiers to fight forced Amar Singh Thapa to lay down his arms.

|| Modern History of hp || Modern History of Himachal Pradesh || Modern History of hp in Hindi ||
D) Treaty of Sugauli - Amar Singh Thapa signed 'Sugauli' with British Major General David Akterloni on 28 November 1815, for the honorable and safe return of himself and his son Ranjore Singh who was guarding the Jataka fort. 'Treaty' signed According to this treaty, the Gorkhas were given a way to return to Nepal safely with their personal possessions.

2. British and mountainous states- The British did not fully comply with the promises made to the hill states. The kings were given back their seats but retained their authority in important places. The British also occupied the princely states whose dynasty ended or in which there was a fight for a successor. The hill rulers had to pay huge amount of money to the British as war expenses. The British called a meeting of 20 Shimla hill states in 'Palasi' to divide the areas derived from the Gorkhas. Bilaspur, Kotkhai, Bhagal and Bushahr were awarded 1815 to 1819. Kumharsen, Balsan, Throch, Kuthar, Mangal, Dhami were awarded independent treaties. Khanethi and Delath were given to the Bushhar state while Koti, Ghund, Theog, Madhan and Ratesh were given to Keonathal princely state. Due to the threat of the Sikhs, many states took refuge in the British. Raja Bir Singh of Nurpur took refuge in Shimla and Sabathu cantonments (of the British). The king of Balbir Sen Mandi wrote a letter to Colonel Tapp, political agent of Sabathu, for help against Ranjit Singh. Many hill states also helped the British against the Sikhs. Shamsher Singh of Guler, Bir Singh of Nurpur, Narayan Pal of Kutlhar drove the Sikhs from their areas. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit and the Lahore Treaty of March 9, 1846, the areas of Sutlej and Beas were annexed by the British. By 1846 AD, the British had completely taken over Kangra, Nurpur, Guler, Jaswan, Datarpur, Mandi, Suket, Kullu and Lahaul-Spiti.


||Ancient History Of Himachal Pradesh HP  In English||Medieval History Of Himachal Pradesh In English||Modern History Of Himachal Pradesh In English||




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