Friday, May 28, 2021

Physiographic Divisions Of HP

 Physiographic Divisions Of HP

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Physiographic Divisions Of HP


 The mountain ranges in Himachal Pradesh are divided into four physiographic divisions from South to North (increasing in height). These are as follows:

 1. Lower Hills or Outer Himalayas 

2. Lesser or Inner Himalayas 

3. Great Himalayas or Alpine Zone

 4. Zanskar Range or Trans-Himalayas 

Physiographic Divisions Of HP




1. The Lower Hills or Outer Himalayas (Shiwalik) 

The altitude of this zone ranges from 300 m to 1500 m above the mean sea level. The outer Himalayas is also known as Shiwalik hills and Mainak Parbat during ancient times. The word Shiwalik literally means tresses of the Shiva or hairlock of Lord Shiva. Shiwalik range is the youngest of Himalayan family. [11:31 AM, 5/29/2021] Gaurav Patyal: The hills of this region contain loose rocks and soils which are prone to erosion and deforestation, which results in the formation of chos or gullies which are common in Una district. Large portion of Shiwalik are at places separated by flat bottomed valley covered with rainfed streams, thick gravel and alluvium. These are called Duns. Churdhar or Choor Chandni (3647 m) in Sirmaur is the highest peak of Shiwalik range. This mountain range separates Sirmaur from Shimla. These ranges cover the lower hills of district Kangra, Hamirpur, Una completely located in Shiwalik), Bilaspur and lower parts of Mandi, Solan and Sirmaur districts. This range is known by many local names like Ram Garh Dhar in Una, Dhog Dhar in Sirmaur, Dharti Dhar, Chamukti Dhar, Sikander Dhar and Naina Devi Dhar in Bilaspur District.


 2. The Lesser or Inner Himalayas (Central Zone) 

The lesser or inner Himalaya range occupies the central part of Himachal Pradesh. The altitude of this zone shows a mean elevation of 1500 to 4500 m. This zone comprises the area of Pachhad tehsil (upper areas) Sirmaur, the upper areas of district Kangra, Karsog and Chachyot tehsils of Mandi district, upper hills of district Shimla and upper parts of tehsil Churah of Chamba district. This zone consists of two ranges: Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal. This zone comprises two mountain ranges which are:

 i. Dhauladhar Range 

Dhauladhar range is the outermost portion of the inner Himalayas. The mean elevation of this range is 4550 m. It is also known as 'White Range'. This range starts from Badrinath (in Uttarakhand) and it is intercepted by the river Sutlej (at Rampur-Bushahr) by river Beas (at Larji) and by river Ravi (at the South-West of Chamba). Kangra, Chamba, Kullu and Manali districts lie in this range. The highest peak of this range is Hanuman Ji Ka Tibba or White Mountain which is 5639 m high. In Mandi district, its highest peak is Nagru (4020 m). The Northern part of Dhauladhar range collide against the Southern part of Pir Panjal range at the mountain knot of Bara Bangal. 

ii. Pir Panjal Range

 The Pir Panjal range at an average height of 5000 m, is a group of mountains in the inner Himalayan region, running from East-South East to West-North West across the state of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. It is the largest range of the lower Himalayas which mostly contains volcanic rocks. The major expansion of Pir Panjal range is found in Chamba district. It forms a water divide between the river Chenab on one side and Beas and Ravi on the other. It separates Kullu valley from Lahaul valley. The famous Rohtang Pass lies in this range, 

Read More:- Geographical Location Of Himachal Pradesh


3. The Great Himalayas or Alpine Zone or Himadri (Northern Zone)

 This is the highest mountain range zone with an altitude from 5,000 m to 7,000 m. The Great Himalayan range runs along the Eastern boundary of Himachal Pradesh. This one is separated by the river Sutlej in two parts the same river also separates Pir Panjal range from this range. This range separates the drainage of river Spiti from the Beas. The entire range gets heavy snowfall which act as water source for many stwfed rivers. This area comprises of Kinnaur district, Pangi tehsil of Chamba district and some areas of Lahaul and Spiti. This range obstructs the path of South-West monsoon winds from moving any further.

 4. Zanskar Range (Shilla Peak-Kinnaur) 

It is the Easternmost range and it separates Kinnaur and Spiti from Tibet, Kashmir and Ladakh. The average elevation of this range is 3000 m. Shilla peak (7026m), the highest peak of Himachal Pradesh lie in this range. Sutlej river passes from this range and forms deep gorges. Parts of Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spici lies in this range. The Zanskar range is cut across by the river Sutlej through degraded material of Shipki La pass.

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