History Of Shimla District

History Of Shimla District 

||History Of Shimla District||Shimla District History||Shimla Distt History In English||

History Of Shimla District


Shimla district borders with Kinnaur, Kullu, Mandi, Solan and Sirmaur districts. The present Shimla district is formed by merging various small and big princely states. Bushahr is the largest and Ratesh is the smallest among the Shimla hill states. Following are the details of the hill states of Shimla district:-

Jubbal State

The princely state of Jubbal was situated in the east of Shimla between Rampur Bushahr and Sirmaur. The princely state of Jubbal was established at the end of the twelfth century in 1195 AD by Karma Chand, son of Ugarchand. The second brother of Karamchand, Mool Chand, established the 'Sari' state and the third brother the Ravingadh state. Karamchad established the capital of the princely state at Sonpur, then later he shifted to Purana Jubal.

Amar Chand:

After Karamchand, Amarchand's name comes among the kings of the princely state of Jodhpur. Raja Amar Singh made an enterprising man named Jhai his minister. Jhain Ram greatly expanded the boundaries of the princely state of Jubbal.

Raja Kirti Chand:

The time of King Kirti Chand was of peace and prosperity. Nothing remarkable happened during his reign.

Raja Bhag Chand:

Rana Bhagchand expanded the territory of his princely state by conquering many Thakurs. He sought help from the Raja of Garhwal against Bhagchand. Taking advantage of the situation, the Raja of Garhwal attacked Jubbal. The Raja of Garhwal took Raja Bhagchand of Jubbal captive and took him to Garhwal. During this period the king fell in love with the daughter of the Raja of Garhwal. But refused the marriage. Later, Raja Bhag Chand fled from there to Jubbal. After that the king ruled Jubbal for ten years and strengthened the border of his princely state.

Narayan Chand:

Narayan Chand ruled after Raja Bhag Chand. Raja Narayan Chand was deceived by the Raja of Sirmaur where he died.

Hukam Chand:

Hukam Chand subdued the areas of Ravingad, Batadh, Shalad and Malog.

Rana Gauhar Chand:

Rana Gauhar Chand shifted the capital of Jubbal from Purana Jubbal to Deora (present Jubbal).

Raja Poorna Chand

The Gorkhas attacked during the time of King Purna Chand. The Gorkhas captured Bazir Dangi and others and sent them to Arki. To run the administration of the princely states like Jubbal, Sari, Ravi, etc., the Gorkhas established their headquarters in the Rawingad fort located on the left bank of the Pabbar river near Hatkoti.

Dangi Bazir supported the British to drive away the Gorkhas. After expelling the Gorkhas, the British government on 18 November 1815, by a sanad, Rana Purna Chand was returned to rule from generation to generation.

After the British government took over the administration in 1833 AD, Captain Kennedy made the land settlement of Jubbal with the help of Jubbal's chiefs. This work was done by Maulak Ram who was also the manager there at that time.

Karma Chand:

After the death of Purna Chand, the government returned the kingdom of Purna Chand considering Karam Chand as the rightful owner, at this time he was only 5 years old. So the government appointed another Tehsildar as manager in Jubbal. In the year 1853 AD, the age of Rana Karma Chand became 18 years old. Therefore, after running the administration of Jubbal for 20 years, the government took the decision of returning Jubbal to the throne and returning the full rights to rule, and placed him on the throne in the month of November or December of the same year.

Rana Karam Chand was a great art lover. He built many temples of Shikhar style near the origin of the Ganges that fell on the beautiful hill, the main ones being the temples of Ganga, Shiva, Vishnu and Kali. Marble sculptures for them were procured from Jaipur.

Padam Chand:

After the death of Karam Chand, Padam Chand ascended the throne. Due to the young age of Padam Chand, the government appointed four people of Jubbal and formed a council to run the administration, Rana Padmachand was also kept in this council. The names of these 4 persons were – Charandas, Gosai, Kalsi and Shuru.

During the time of Padam Chand, disputes regarding the boundary of Jubbal with Sirmaur, Bushahr, Tharoch and Ravingad continued. Padamchand built a new palace and a Shiva temple at Deora. In Hatkoti, a roof was installed on the temple of Durga and a gold urn was placed on it.

Gyan Chand:

Gyan Chand was 11 years old at the time of Rana Padmachand's death. Vazir Bhagwan Das took over the administration as the manager of the princely state. In 1908 AD, the government gave full rights of the state to Rana Gyanchand, but after 2 years in 1910, Rana Gyanchand died.

Bhakta Chand:

Rana Gyanchand died at the age of 23. They had no children. Bhakta Chand was the half-brother of Gyan Chand. In 1911 AD, the court of British Emperor George V was held in Delhi, in which Rana Bhaktchand of Jubbal was also invited by the Government of India. In 1945, Jubbal I High School and Sanatan Dharma College were opened in Shimla in the memory of his father Padmachand to spread education in the hills.

In 1918, the government honored Rana Bhakt Chand with the hereditary title of Raja. In 1928 AD C.S.I. and awarded the titles of KCSI in 1936. Raja Bhakt Chand was elected to the Chamber of Princes (Mandal) in 1921 and from the hill states of Shimla in 1933. Jubbal was the only princely state after Chamba among the hill states to generate electricity from water in Jubbal in 1926. In 1933, the Viceroy Lord Irwin visited Jubbal.

On October 12, 1946, Bhakta Chand handed over the full rights of the state to his son Digvijay Chand on his birthday and made him sit on the throne.

Digvijay chand:

Digvijay Chand was the last ruler of Jubbal princely state. Rana Digvijay had two daughters and two sons. The first daughter Maharani Devendra Kumari was married to Maharaja Madaneshwar Singh of Surguja and the second daughter Princess Ratan Kumari was married to Virbhadra Singh, the king of Bushahr and became the Chief Minister of the state for six times. One of the two sons of Rana Digvijay ji was Tikka Digpal Chand and the other Rana Yogendra Chand.

Jubbal was merged with Mahasu district on 15 April 1948.


Bushahr State

The princely state of Bushahr was founded by Pradyumna, the son of Shri Krishna. He had come to marry his son Anirudh to the daughter of King Banasura of Sonitpur (Sarah). After the death of Banasur, Pradyumna established the princely state of Bushahr and made Kamru the capital of the princely state of Bushahr.

We have discussed about Bushahr princely state in the history of Kinnaur district.

Moolchand, the second son of Ugrasen, the last king of ancient Sirmaur, founded the entire state at about the same time as his elder brother Karma Chand laid the foundation of the Jubbal kingdom. This princely state was situated on the banks of the river Pabbar and its borders extended till Nogli Khad near Rampur Bushahr. The princely state of Rohru used to come under the entire princely state, due to the lack of genealogy, it is difficult to say how many rulers were there in the whole princely state. In 1864 AD, the British government gave the entire princely state to Bushahr as a tribute.


Ravinggarh (Ravin)

The princely state of Ravingad was founded by Dunichand, the third son of Ugrasen, the king of Sirmaur. Raja Veer Prakash of Sirmaur founded the Ravingad fort. In 1844 AD, the British officer Arskin made the settlement of Ravinggarh. In 1896 AD, the Government of India took Ravingad under Jubbal. At that time Thakur Hari Chand opposed it.

In 1830, the British gave the area of ​​Ravingarh to Keonthal and in return took the place of Shimla city. Presently Ravingarh is a part of Jubbal Tehsil.

Balsan State

The princely state of Balsan was situated across the Giri, a tributary of the Yamuna. The princely state of Balsan was spread in the valley above the river Jubbal in the central part of Kotkhai, to its south was Sirmaur. According to the history of Balsan, the foundation of this princely state was laid by a Suryavanshi Rathod Alak Singh of the royal family of ancient Sirmaur.

This princely state was the jagir of the princely state of Sirmaur before 1805 AD. At the time of Gorkha invasion, this princely state was the jagir of Kumarsen and it was ruled by Jograj.

Jograj Singh assisted the British government in the Gurkha War and handed over the Nagin Durg to David Ochterlony. An independent sanad was granted to Thakur Jograj, the ruler of Balsan, in 1815.

Balsan princely state in 1857 AD. Supported the British government in the rebellion of and many European citizens took refuge here. The British government gave the title of Khalat and Rana in 1858 AD to Jograj, the ruler of Balsan.

Rana Bahadur Singh was the Rana of Balsan from 1936 to 1943. The last ruler of Balsan was Vidyabhushan Singh. On 15 April 1948, the Balsan princely state became a part of Himachal Pradesh and is presently a part of Theog Tehsil District Shimla.


Kumarsen princely state

The princely state of Kumarsen was founded by Kirat Chand, who came from Gaya (Bihar). Kirat Chand (Singh) had come to these mountains after fleeing from the fear of attack by Mahmud Ghaznavi.

Ajmer Singh:

At the time of Ajmer Singh, the king of Kullu was Mansingh. It is known in the history of Kullu that Man Singh had taken control of Kothi Pandrabish, part of the outer Siraj area of ​​Bushahr. Ajmer Singh defeated Raja Mansingh of Kullu and captured 'Sari' and 'Shangri' forts.

Anoop Singh: No information is available regarding this Rana.

Dalip Singh:

Dalip Singh was conspired by his own brother and sent him to Kullu saying that Kullu's throne was lying vacant. At first he had a great fan following in Kullu but later he was killed. After that Ram Singh became the king of Kumarsen.

Goverdhan Singh: After Ram Singh, Govardhan Singh sat on the throne.

Kehri Singh:

Rana Govardhan Singh had no children, so after his death his younger brother Kehri Singh sat on the throne, at that time Kumarsen was the ruler of Bushahr. In 1810 the Gorkhas captured Kumarsen. After the departure of the Gorkhas, on 7 February 1816 AD, the British government gave back his princely state to him by sanad. Kehri Singh died in 1839 AD.

Pritam Singh: Pritam Singh supported the British during the First Sikh War. Kumarsen also assisted the British government in the revolt of 1857.

Bhavani Singh: After Pritam Singh, his son Bhavani Singh sat on the throne.

Hira Singh:

Hira Singh was of weak intellect. Therefore the administration of the state was run by a council from 1874 to 1896. This council advisory committee continued to function till 1904. Hira Singh died in 1914.

Vidyadhar Singh:

Vidyadhar Singh was placed on the throne on 12 November 1915. At that time he was given the rights of manager and in 1920 he was given full rights of the state, but permission had to be taken from the political agent of the Government of India to give the death penalty.

Rana Sumeshwar Singh (from 1945–1949) was the last ruler of Kumarsen. Kumarsen was made a part of Mahasu district on 15 April 1948.

Delath State

The princely state of Delath was founded by Prithvi Singh, brother of Kirat Chand. This Thakurai was very small in terms of area and population and mostly it remained under the control of Bushahr. From 1810 to 1815 it was under the Gorkhas.

After 1815, the princely state of Delath was placed under Bushahr by the British government. On 15 April 1948, it was merged with Bushahr with Himachal Pradesh and became a part of Mahasu district. Presently it is part of Rampur Tehsil.

khaneti principality

The princely state of Khaneti was founded by Sabeer Chand, the son of Kirat Chand, the founder of the princely state of Kumarsen.

Veer Chand (1550 AD): Veer Chand was defeated by Bushahr and captured many of his villages.

Even during the time of Pratap Chand, some part of Thakurai kept going out of hand.

During the time of Rasal Chand, there was an attack of Gorkhas. The British government gave Khaneti to Thakurai Bushahr on 16 February 1816.


Nain Chand: From 1816 to 1859, there was confusion in the relationship between Khaneti and Bushehr. Earlier the Thakur continued to run the administration of his area himself. But being under Bushahr, Bushahr kept his agent there.

Saran Chand (1858-1888): At this time, Bushahr was ruled by Raja Shamsher Singh.

Lal Chand (1888-1899): Lal Chand was also a fanatic. Therefore, the work of administration continued to be run by his brother Zalim Singh.

After Lal Chand, Amogha Chand and Krishna Chand ruled in Khaneti. It was merged with Himachal State on 15 April 1948.

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Kotkhai State

The princely state of Kotkhai was founded by Ahimal Singh, a descendant of Kirat Singh, the first Thakur of Kumar Sen. Kotkhai was the jagir of Kumarsen, Kullu and Bushahr. The princely state of Kotkhai was under the possession of Gorkhas from 1810 to 1815 AD. After the defeat of the Gorkhas in 1815 AD, the area of ​​Kotkhai came under the control of the British. Like other Thakurai, the British government returned the Thakurai of Kotkhai to its Rana Ranjit Singh on certain conditions. But the British government kept the area of ​​Kotgarh with itself. On 15 April 1948, the princely state of Kotkhai became a part of Himachal.

Dhadhi princely state

The princely state of Dhadhi was a branch of Tharoch. Dhadhi was situated on the right slope of Pabbar within the confluence of Thakurai Tons and Pabbar rivers. In the early period, this princely state was under Throj. But later it came under Bushahr. During the Gorkha occupation, he merged it with Ravingarh Thukrai. In 1896, Ravingad and Dhadhi were made jagirs of the princely state of Jubbal. The last ruler of Dhadhi princely state was Dharam Singh. On the formation of Himachal Pradesh on 15 April 1948, the area of ​​this Thakurai was merged with Jubbal Tehsil of Mahasu District.


Darkoti princely state

The princely state of Darkoti was situated at the inner end of the river Giri. The princely state of Darkoti was founded by Durga Chand, who came from Marwar (Jaipur). This Thakurai had 26 Thakurs. After the expulsion of Gorkhas by the British government, Shishram (Satish Ram) was placed on the throne. From the time of the creation of Himachal Pradesh on 15 April 1948, Mahasu was made a part of the district.


Shangri State

The Shangri state was situated to the left of the Sutlej near Kotgarh and Kumarsen. This princely state was sometimes under the control of Bushahr and sometimes under Kumarsen. But most of it was the right of Bushahr. In the 18th century, Raja Mansingh of Kullu crossed the Sutlej river and captured Shangri and after giving jagirs to the Thakurs there, merged that area with his kingdom Kullu. He also built a fort at Kalgarh.

After the Gorkha-British War (1815), Vikram Singh became the ruler of Shangri. Shangri State in 1815 AD. It was handed over to the princely state of Kullu. Hira Singh was awarded the title of Rai in 1887. Rai Raghuveer Singh was the last ruler of Shangri princely state.

Shangri became a part of Himachal Pradesh on 15 April 1948 and was included in the then Mahasu district.


Keonthal State

Keonthal princely state was established in 1211 AD by Girisena, younger brother of Veerasen, the founder of Suket state. Before 1800 AD, there were 18 Thakurias under the princely state of Keonthal. Koti, Ghund, Theog, Madhan, Mahlog, Kuthad, Kunihar, Dhami, Tharoch, Shangri, Kumarsen, Rajana, Khaneti, Maili, Khalsi, Baghari, Dighayali and Ghat.

Firoz Shah Tughlaq took Keonthal and Sirmaur under his suzerainty in 1379 AD. Raja Mahiprakash of Sirmaur asked for the hand of the daughter of Rana Anoop Singh of Keonthal. But Anoop Sen denied this. The king of Sirmaur attacked Keonthal. This battle took place on "Deshu Ki Dhar". In this, Mahi Prakash was defeated. He sought help from the king of Guler, his relative and fought and defeated Rana Anupsen of Keonthal.

At the time of Prithvi Sen, Rana Ram Singh of Kumarsen had subdued Balasan Thakurai, the subordinate of Keonthal. When Gorkhas attacked in 1809 AD, Rana Raghunath Sen of Keonthal fled to Suket. The 18 Thakurai of Keonthal were separated in 1814 AD. In the year 1815, Ghund, Madhan, Ratesh, Theog and Koti Thakurai came under the princely state of Keonthal. The capital of Keonthal was Junga.

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Sansar Sen:

Raghunath Sen's son Rana Sansar Sen returned from Suket after the Gorkha War of 1815. The Sarkar, like other hill kings and Thakurs, returned Rana Sansar Sen of Keonthal by his sanad of 6 September 1815. Rana Sansar Sen helped the British in the revolt of 1857, for which he was given the title of 'Raja' and 'Khilat'. Sansarsen died in 1862 AD. After this his son Mahinder Sen became the king of Keonthal.

Balveer Sen:

Balvir Sen ascended the throne in 1882 AD. During that time there was discontent within the princely state. He made land settlement of the princely state in 1901. Balvir Sen died in 1901.

Vijay Sen.

In 1911 AD, Vijay Singh was also invited during the Delhi Durbar. Under this king, the land settlement started again in 1912 and was completed in 1915. During the tenure of this king, land was made available for the construction of Kalka-Shimla National Highway. Vijay Sen died in 1916 AD.

Humendra Sen:

Hamendra Sen ascended the throne in 1916 AD. He abolished slavery among the weaker sections and abolished forced labor. In 1936, he was given the title of CSI.

Hitendra Sen:

After the death of Hamendra Sen in 1940, Hitendra Sen became the king of Keonthal. He was the last king of Keonthal. As a result of the coming into existence of Himachal, the princely state of Keonthal was merged with Mahasu district in 1948.


Bhajji State

The princely state of Bhajji was situated on the banks of Nauti Khad, a tributary of Sutlej. The princely state of Bhajji was founded by "Charu", a descendant of Kutlahad, who later changed his name to Udaypal.

From Uday Pal to 29th generation Sohan Pal, the original Bhajji remained their capital. Sohan Pal settled a Sunni village on the banks of the Sutlej and made it his capital. 34th Thakur Jai Chand attacked Suket with the help of Bushahr.

From 1809 to 1815, this princely state was ruled by Gorkhas. At that time the king of Bhajji was Rudra Pal.

From 1844 AD to 1875 AD, Bhajji was ruled by Ranbahadur. Durga Singh sat on the throne after Ranbahadur Singh. The last ruler of Bhajji princely state was Rana Ram Chandra Pal. Bhajji Thakurai was famous for opium production. After the formation of Himachal Pradesh in 1948, Bhajji Thakurai became a Sunni tehsil of Mahasu district. Now this district is a part of Shimla.

Koti princely state

The princely state of Koti was a princely state spread over 70 square kilometers in the east of Shimla. The princely state of Koti was founded by Chandra, the brother of Charu, a descendant of the Kutlahad princely state. Koti was the capital of the princely state. Which was later shifted to Kyar Koti by Tara Chand Thakur. According to the settlement report of Koti, 22 rulers are formed till 1948. According to Bhajji's report, it had 46 rulers.

Gopi Chand was the tenth Thakur from the founder of the koti. From 1809 to 1815, the princely state of Koti remained under the Gorkhas. At that time Pratap was the ruler of Chand Koti.

Harichand helped the British in 1857 AD, in return for which he was given the title of Rana. The princely state of Koti became a part of Kusumpti tehsil and merged into Himachal Pradesh (Mahasu district) in 1948 AD.


Dhami princely state

The princely state of Dhami was founded by Govind Pal, a descendant of Prithviraj Chauhan who came to Dhami from Rajpura (Patiala). Dhami was the only princely state among the Shimla hill states which was founded by the descendants of Prithviraj Chauhan. Initially Dhami was rejected by Kahlur (Bilaspur). When the Gorkhas took control of this region, Dhami princely state also came under their control. Rana Govardhan of Dhami sided with the British in the Anglo-Gorkha war, after which the British government granted him an independent Sanad. Govardhan Singh supported the British in the revolt of 1857.

The capital of Dhami princely state was Halog. The first land settlement was done in Dhami in 1915 at Halog during the time of Rana Hira Singh. He was an efficient administrator. Pleased with this, the British government awarded him the title of CIE in 1913.

Rana Dalip Singh was given full rights of the state in 1930. This Rana had completely implemented prohibition in his state. During his reign, Dhami Prem Pracharini Sabha was formed in 1937. Whose name was later changed to Dhami princely state Prajamandal. The Dhami Holi incident took place on 16 July in 1939.

When Himachal Pradesh came into existence on 15 April 1948, Dhami was merged with Kusumpti tehsil of Mahasu district.

District Mahasu was formed on April 15, 1948 by merging 26 hilly princely states and Thakurai of Shimla. In 1950 AD instead of Sanjauli, Kotgarh and Bharoli was merged with Punjab. Shimla district was created in September 1972 by abolishing the district Mahasu. Shimla town, Sanjauli, Kandaghat etc. were merged into Himachal Pradesh on 1st November 1966 AD, after which in 1972 Mahasu and Shimla areas were reorganized to form Shimla and Solan districts.

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