History Of Chamba District (Himachal Pradesh)

 History Of Chamba District (Himachal Pradesh)

|| History Of Chamba District (Himachal Pradesh)|| Brief History Of Chamba District (Himachal Pradesh)||Chamba distt History In English ||Chamba District Hitsory for HAS & PSC Exams||

History Of Chamba District (Himachal Pradesh)

The district touches the boundary with Jammu and Kashmir hon north and west, Ladakh and Lahaul and Bara Bangal on the n north east, Kangra on the south-east and Gurdaspur (Punjab) on the south. HISTORY The stone inscriptions found in the Chamba region have d mostly been written in Sharda and Tankri script. The large number of coins and copper plates and other relevant material is preserved in the Bhuri Singh Museum Chamba. These inscriptions throw light on the early socio-economic and political history of Chamba state. The highest number of inscription numbering 36 has been found in the Chamba regions. They are donatives in character and have been found mostly written in Sharda and Tankri scripts. The last Chamba copper plate in which Ranas inscribed during reign of Raja Astana Verman in 1080-1100 AD Aditya was first of the Chamba line to assume the suffix of 'Verman". 

Meru Varman (680 AD)

  •  Copper plates issued by early ruler of Chamba and Rajtarangni written by Kalhana on Kashmir provide account of history of Chamba. Earlier Ravi and Chandra Bhaga valley was ruled by petty Chiefs, Thakuras and Ranas. After emergence of central authority under Meru Verman these Thakuras and Chiefs start losing their control and became subject to Chamba.
  •  Raja of Chamba belonged to the Suryavanshi line of Rajput, continued through Kusha, the son of Rama. The original home of the family was in Ayodhya.
  • Founder of Chamba state was Meru Verman and Bharmaur was made capital of the new state. 
  •  He was devotee of idol Shakti Devi; he fought a war with Kullu Raja Sri Dateshwar Pal and emerged victorious after killing chief. Kullu came under Chamba. 
  •  He built temple of Mani-Mahesha, Lakshana Devi, Ganesha and Narsingha. The Surajmukh shrine at Bharmour is build by him. 
  • The 'Kashmiri Style of Art' entered in H.P during his reigon. Gugga was the master craftsman during Meru reign.
 Ajia Varman (800 AD): During his reign Gaddi (shepherd) came from Delhi and settled in Bharmaur. 

 Lakshmi Varman (800 AD) : During his reign an epidemic broke out in the state, Tibetans chief Kira took the advantage of situation and occupied the territory. After the death of Lakshmi Verman Kullu obtained independence from Chamba with the help of Raja of Bushahr. 

Mushan Varman (820 AD) 

  • Lakshmi Varman died childless, but his queen was pregnant. Wazir and Purohit put the Rani into Palki and carried toward Kangra to save her from invaders. On the way at village of "Guroh' in upper Ravi valley she felt labour pain. She gave birth to a son in a cave. Fearing of the risk of his capture, she left him there and started her journey. When Wazir and Purohit questioned her closely, after knowing reality, they returned to cave and found young prince was surrounded by mice and keeping guard over him, for this he was named Mushan Varman. 
  • Rani and prince stayed in the house of a Brahmin for 8-9 years without revealing their identity, one day Brahmin recognized the prince as he belonged to royal family and introduced him to Raja of Suket. Raja of Suket made arrangement of his education, got his daughter married to him, and gave of Pangna jagir as dowry, and helped him to regain his state and after returning to Brahmpura, he drove out the invaders. Mushan Varman probihited the killing of mice in his kingdom.
Sahil Varman (920 AD) 
  • Raja was childless, and shortly after his accession, Brahmpura was visited by 84 yogis headed by Charpath Nath who promised him to bless with ten sons and a daughter. He founded new town Chamba and shifted capital here that is named after princess Champavati. Yogi Charpatnath guided Raja Sahil Varman regarding the site of the new capital of his state.
  •  Kira was compeletely vanished from Chamba. 
  • The town had no convenient water supply. Raja ordered to bring Sarotha stream water through canal, but water refused to enter the channel. It is said that a Brahmin advised that the spirit of stream want life sacrifice of Rani or her son. According to other saying Raja himself saw all this in dream.
  • Rani Naina Devi got ready to sacrifice herself. She was taken to the spot village (Balota) where Rani was buried alive, when the grave was filled in, the water began to flow, a Mela (fair) called Suhi Mela is held in her memory where only women and children are allowed to participate. 
  •  Princess Champavati was religious in nature and used to visit a "Sadhu" for conversation; suspicion developed in the mind of Raja and followed her with a sword in his hand up to an empty house. As he entered, a voice came from stillness that told him that his child had been taken away from him as a punishment for his suspicion. Raja was commanded to build a temple where she is worshipped as Goddess. Fair is also held there in Baishakh. 
  • Sahil Varman built the following famous temples: Lakshmi Narayan Vishnu Chandershekra, Chandra Gupta and kameshwara temple. 
  • Chakli was the coin of state, pierced ear was inscribed on coin as a symbol of yogi by Sahil Varman. 
  •  In the memory of 84 yogis, small temples were constructed that is called "Chaurasi" in Bharmaur.
 Yugankar Verman (940 AD): His Queen was Tribhuvan Rekha Devi Temple of Narsingha was created by queen and temple of Ishwar-Gaurja (Gauri-Shankar) by king. 

 Salvahan Varman (1040 AD): According to Rajtarangini during his reign Chamba was invaded by Kashmir ruler Ananta Deva. 

Soma Varman (1060 AD): According to Rajtarangini, he visited Kashimir during the regin of Ananta Deva. Later Ananta Dev invaded Chamba and Chamba came under Kashmir, later on the two ruling families had marital relations. Bappika, sister of Asata Varman was married to Kalasa. Harsha, son of Bappika, succeeded to the throne after the death of Kalasa. Asata Varman occupied the thore in 1080AD 

 Jayast Varman (1105AD): He was loyal towards Kashmir and helped Harsha, when the Kashmir was invaded by lohara family. 

 Udaya Varman (1120 AD): During his regin Chamba was against the Royal family of Kashmir. He lent his support to Shussala (Lohara), because Shussala had married the princesses of Chamba family, whose names were Devlekha and Taralekha, both of whome became Sati on the death of Shussala. 

Vijaya Varman (1175 AD): He invaded Kashmir and Ladakh, regained earlier lost area. He took the advantage of Mohammed Gauri attack on India in 1191 and 1192. 

 Ganesh Varman: The plate of this era shows the instances of the use of suffix "Singh" in the Chamba family. He built the fort of "Ganeshgarh". There is a copper inscription in Chamba, according to which Kullu Raja donated a part of land to Chamba ruling priest Rampati. Besaue he had played an important role in arranging marriage alliance between Chamba and Kullu royal family. 3 Princesses of Kullu were married to Pratap Singh Varman.

Pratap Singh Varman (1559 AD): He fought a battle with Kangra Raja Chandar Pal. Kangra was defeated and Raja's brother Jit Chand was killed. Kangra lost "Chari" and Gharoh area to Chamba, and Guler was also occupied by Chamba forces. Pratap was contemporary of Akbar. Todar Mal was appointed by Akbar to acquire Rihlu area of Chamba. 

Balbhadra (1589 AD): He was known Bali-Karan because of his generosity and making charity. He gifted land to Lakshmi Narayan temple. When Janardhan, eldest son of Raja was requested by officials to intervene and control Raja from making excess charity. Janardhan removed his father and deported him to the village of "Baraia" but Raja continued distributing and the whole building was gifted away along with the lands. 

|| History Of Chamba District (Himachal Pradesh)|| Brief History Of Chamba District (Himachal Pradesh)||Chamba distt History In English ||Chamba District Hitsory for HAS & PSC Exams||

 Janardhan: Soon after he assumed charge of the kingdom, war broke out between him and "Suraj Mal", Raja of Nurpur. The war went for twelve years without either side gain in any advantage. In 1618 AD when Suraj Mal revolted against Mughals, and he was forced by Mughal army to take refuge in Chamba. Where he was killed by Janardhan and his brother.
  •  Suraj Mal was succeeded by his brother Jagat Singh who assist Mughal forces in the siege of Kangra fort in 1620. In 1623 a decisive war was fought between Nurpur and Chamba at "Dahlog". In this war Janardhan's brother Bishamber was killed and later Janardhan was also killed by Jagat Singh in Delhi, when he (Janardhan) was invited to have negotiation after war. Now Chamba came under the control of Jagat Singh for twenty years. He built Taragarh fort in Chamba. 
  • Janardhan left no heir but his Rani was pregnant and on learning this, Jagat Singh ordered to kill infant if proved to be a boy and if it was a girl, was to be married in Nurpur family. When boy (Prithvi Singh) was born, his nurse named "Batlu" is said to have smuggled him out of palace and sent him away to Mandi.
 Prithvi Singh (1641 AD): In 1641, when Raja Jagat Singh of Nurpur revolted against Mughals, Sahajahan sent an army to suppress the revolt under Prince Murad Baksh. Jagat Singh was in good position with three principal forts i.e. Mankot, Nurpur and Taragarh. Prithvi Singh took advantage of Mughal attack on Jagat Singh to regain his lost kingdom with the help of Mandi and Suket and Man Singh of Guler. Jagat Singh surrendered to Mughals and later pardoned with restoration of all honours. "Taragarh" was taken over by Mughals. 
  •  After recovering his kingdom he became first to built state office (Kothis) in Churah and Pangi. 
  • He is said to have visited Delhi nine times during the reign of Sahajahan, and obtain family idol of th Chamba Rajas, called Raghubir from emperor. Prithvi Singh went on pilgrimage to Prayag, Kashi and Gaya. Raghubir yatra is held in Minjar Mela (7 days). 
  •  From his time the old suffix of Varman was totally dropped. During his reign the temple of Khajinag at Khajjiar, Hidimba at Mahal and Sita-Ram at Chamba was constructed by Baltu

Chattar Singh (1664 AD): His real name was Shashtru Singh, He sent his brother Jai Singh who was Wazir too, to Sangram Pal of (Basholi) to demand the Bhalai Ilaqa but he refused. Chattar Singh invaded Basholi and reoccupied Bhalai which was given by his father to Sangram, 
  • In 1678 he refused the order of Aurangzeb to demolish all Hindu temples in state. On hearing this emperor summoned the Raja to Delhi. Instead of going himself, he sent his brother Shakati Singh and Raj Singh of Guler but they turned back before reaching Delhi. He built the fort Chattargarh in Podar, which was renamed by Dogra's as Gulabhgarh in 1836 AD. 
  • A confederation of Chattar Singh of Chamba, Raj Singh of Guler, Dhiraj Pal of Basholi and Kirpala Deo from Jammu stopped Mirza Beg, Viceroy of Punjab who used to make intrusion into the hills. In 1646-47 Ladakh and Lahaul were invaded by Tibet, but later in 1663-64 combined forces of Kullu and Chamba expelled the invaders and divided the Lahaul between them. 
Udai Singh (1690 AD): He was not good in administration and surrendered himself to sexual pleasure. He appointed a barber, his Wazir whose daughter he had fallen in love. 

The officials deposed him and appointed Ugar Singh cousin of Raja but within month Udai Singh was restored. Ugar Singh fled to Jammu, then officials made a conspiracy with younger brother of Raja Lakshman Singh to kill Udai Singh but at last moment Lakshman decided to stand beside his brother. In the conflict Lakshman was killed. Udai was murdered in 1720; both Raja and his brother had no child to succeed to the throne.

Ugar Singh (1720 AD): He without disclosing his identity serves as a soldier in the army of Raja Dhruv Dev of Jammu. One day he controlled a mad (mast) elephant and cut the trunk at one blow with his sword. When Jammu Raja came to know about his connection with Royal family, Raja Dhruv Dev sent him back to Chamba with necessary help, where he was installed as Raja. The place where Udai Singh was killed, a temple was created by Ugar Singh to appease the ghost of the Raja. A small tax known as 'Tusera Udai Singhiana Auteriana' was imposed for its maintenance. 
  • Soon after his restoration as king, officials disposed him and appointed Dalel Singh, his cousin to throne, they first ensured the release of Dalel Singh from Mughal imprisonment by paying Rs. 1 Lakh. Ugar Singh broke down the bridge over river Ravi and set fire to the town.

 Dalel Singh (1735 AD): He put Ugar Singh's two sons Umed Singh and Sher Singh in prison in Lahore, after thirteen years they manage to escape but they were recaptured and brought back. When Viceroy came to know the fact he helped Umed Singh to recover his territory. 

 Umed Singh (1748 AD): He laid the foundation of "Rang Mahal of Chamba". During his reign, the territory of the state was enlarged to the south of Dhauladhar upto the border of Mandi. The fort of pathiyar near Palampur was also garrisoned by his troops and Bir-Bangahal was also under his influence. He died at the age of 39 in 1764 and left an order that none of the Rani to become Sati at his funeral.

Raja Raj Singh (1764 AD): 
  • When his father Umed Singh died he was only nine years old, Raja Ghamand Chand of Kangra took the advantage of this, seized the fort of Pathiyar, an area of Bir Banghal. On this, the Queen who was princess of Jammu obtained help from Jammu Raja Ranjit Deo. Ranjit appointed an official name "Aklu" to the office of Wazir. When Raj Singh came to age, he removed Aklu from power and put into prison. 
  •  It was taken by Ranjit Deo as a personal insult a sent army under "Amit Pal" of Basholi Raj Singh took help of Ramgarhia sardar to recover his territory. In 1775 he married to the daughter of Sampat Pal of Bhadrawah, now Bhadrawah become unit of Chamba.
  •  Raja Sansar Chand of Kangra demanded Rihlu area from Raj Singh, as having been part of Kangra. Raj Singh outained help from Nurpur and a battle took place near Shahpur in which Raj Singh was killed in 1794. Churah was standing cause of dispute between Chamba and Basholi. After Raj Singh, a final attempt was made by Basholi to recover territory.
 Jit Singh (1794 AD): Shortly after his coming to power he had to face a war with Raja Bijai Pal of Basholi. In 1804-05 when Raja Mahan Singh of Bilaspur invited Gurkhas (Amar Singh Thapa) to invade Sansar Chand, Raja of Kangra, Chamba state also sent troops under Nathu Wazir. In 1809AD), Chamba including Kangra became tributary to Lahore.

Charhat Singh (1808 A.D): 

  •  He was only six years old when he was installed as Raja. During this time administration remains in the hands of Rani Sharda and Wazir Nathu. Rani constructed temple of Radha-Krishna.
  •  In 1814 he abolished Sati Practice completely from his sate. 
  • Pahar Chand, chief of Bhadrawah that was sub-state of Chamba refused to pay tribute to Chamba. In 1821 AD Nathu obtained help from Maharaja Ranjit Singh and forced Pahar Chand to flee to never return. In 1833 Raja appointed his younger brother Zorawar Singh Raja of Bhadrawah. 
  • In 1820- Ratnu an official invaded Zanskar area, made it a part of Camba.
  •  In 1839 Chamba for the first time visited by European, Mr. Vigne. In same year 1839 Chamba was visited by Cunningham. 
Sri Singh (1844 A.D) : 
  • He was five years of age on his succession, all power were used by his mother. His uncle Zorawar Singh Raja of Bhadrawah died in 1845 and his son Prakim Singh were made Raja but Gulab Singh of Jammu annexed the Bhadrawah.
  •  In the initial year of Sri Singh an office remained under Brahmin of Basholi whose name was Lakar Shah. By his order a new copper coin was issued and it is still called Lakar-Shahil after him. In AD 1846 after first Anglo-Sikh war hilly area between Beas and Satluj and Jalandhara Doab came into British control. British government transferred mountainous country between the Ravi and Indus including Chamba to Jammu Raja Gulab Singh. But later Chamba was excluded from the term of Treaty, but Bhadrawah was lost forever. Sanad was granted to Sri Singh by Britishers on 6th April 1848. During the revolt of 1857 Sri Singh was loyal to government and sent troops to Dalhousie under Mian Autar Singh. Economic condition of state was not good due to mismanagement and extravagance. Raja asked for the services of British officer and Major Blair Reid was appointed superintendent of state in 1863. In 1864 A.D, the state forest Department was leased to the British government for 99 years.
  •  In 1866 a hospital was opened. 
  • Jandrighat, the Raja's Dalhousie residence was constructed in 1870-71. 
 Gopal Singh: He was brother of Sri Singh, their younger brother was Mian Suchet Singh who also made unsuccessful claim for Raj Gadhi. During Gopal reign on 13 November 1871 chamba was visited by Lord Mayo governor-general of India. He has three sons: Sham Singh, Bhuri Singh and Partap Singh.

Sham Singh (1873 AD): -
  •  John Herry was appointed teacher to Sham Singh in 1878. Mian Autar Singh was appointed his wazir. In March 1875 the Raja was present at imperial court in Delhi and in 1876 met Prince of Wales at Lahore. Colonel Reid started a land revenue settlement in Chamba in 1876 which resulted in a considerable gain to the state finances. 
  • Hops growing was introduced in the state in 1880, but was soon abandoned in 1886 because difficulty in the process of drying.
  •  In 1881, a branch of Dispensary was opened at Tissa. The hospital building constructed by Colonel Reid in 1875 which was demolished in 1891 to made way for Sham Singh hospital. 
  • Sheetla Bridge on Ravi was constructed.
  •  In 1900 Chamba was visited by Viceroy and Lady Curzon. 
 Bhuri Singh
  •  On 12" May 1904 Mian Bhuri Singh was installed as Raja by Sir Charles Rivaz, Lieutenant Governor of Punjab. On 1st January 1906, his highness Bhuri Singh received from the king Emperor his distinction of Knighthood. And in 1906 new Dak Bangalow and liabrary were built in the town. In 1907 Raja was present at Viceregal Court in Agra to meet the Amir of Afghanistan. 
  • Bhuri Singh Museum was inaugurated in 1908. 
  •  Power House was constructed on river Sal and Chamba town was electrified in 1910. 
  • Raja Bhuri Singh helped Britishers in World War I for which he was honoured with Knighthood. 
  • Bhuri Singh died in 1919 and he was succeeded by elder son  Tikka Ram Singh
Tikka Ram Singh. He was installed as raja by Eduard Mackagan, governor of Punjab in March 1920. He died in 1935 in Lahore.

 Raja Lakshman Dast: 
  • He supported Britishers in Second World War which broke out in 1939. 
  •  On 15 August 1948 Chamba was merged with Himachal as a separate administration unit.
|| History Of Chamba District (Himachal Pradesh)|| Brief History Of Chamba District (Himachal Pradesh)||Chamba distt History In English ||Chamba District Hitsory for HAS & PSC Exams||

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