Ancient History Of Himachal Pradesh In English

Ancient History Of Himachal Pradesh In English

Ancient History Of Himachal Pradesh In English


(I) Pre-historic Himachal(Ancient History of HP): 

Ancient History of HP:-Inscription was not developed in pre-historical times. We have not received any written documents of human beings at this time. We were only dependent on archaeological resources for this period. This period is divided into the period of Palaeolithic period (30 Lakh to 10 thousand BC), Mid-Paleolithic period (1000 BC-4000 BC) and Neolithic period (7000 BC-1000 BC). The Proto-historic is called the period, in which the script was there, but it has not yet been read, such as the Harappan period.

  •  Paleolithic Source: In the 1951, Olaf Prufer has been found in stone pots like Khurpa etc., in Nalagarh on the right side of Sirsa river, tributary of Sutlej. In 1955 B.B. Lal received samples of instruments of 72 stones of Adisohan type from Guler, Dehra, Dhaliara and Kangra. Among them mains are Chopper, Hast Kuthar and Vedani. Dr. G.C.Mahapatra also got the remains of stones made of stone in the Sirsa river valley and North Paharan period (3 million-4 lakh years ago) in Kangra. Remains of this period have been received in 1974 in the Suketi area of Markanda River of Sirmaur. 
  •  Mid-Paleolithic and Neolithic Sources: This period (10000 BC-1000BC) has been considered as one in India, whereas it is divided into Europe. The origins of sustainable agriculture and civilizations took place during this period. The evidence of the Neolithic era is found in Kotla-Nihong in Ropar. In the foothills of the Saraswati-Yamuna rivers, brown paintings are made in pottery. 
  •  Proto-History (at the time of Indus Civilization) Resident of Himachal
  1.  Kol Kol is native to Himachal Pradesh, which laid the foundation of the new stone age culture. The people of Koli, Hali, Doom, Chanal, Badhi, etc. of the present in the Western Himalayas are from Kol caste. Kol tribe finds the settlement in Himachal Pradesh with the rocks of Chandeshwar valley in Kumaun. 
  2. Kirat: Kirat (Mangol) was the second caste to come here after the Kol caste. Rishi Vasishtha has called him 'Shishna Dev' (who worshiped 'Linga' Goddess). In the Mahabharata Kirat has been described as the resident of the Himalayas. In chapter 140 of the Van Parva (Mahabharata), the description of his residence is found. The Khash were the people who drive them from the mountain foothills to the high mountains. Manu also described the Kirato. Kinnnar get mention in Raghuvansh of Kiladas. 
  3. Naag: People of this caste lived everywhere in the hills of Himachal. There are 10 feet high statues of serpents in the Panchvaktra Shiva temple of Mandi. Serpent gods have been shown in the seals of Harappa civilization. In the Mahabharata, Arjuna had Gandharva married from the Nag Kanya, the Naag King Vasuki of Ulupi. Vasuki Nag is worshiped in Chamba, Kullu etc. Takshaka Naag established the Naga state in the Himalayas. 
  4.  Khas: The third branch of the Aryans, which spread from Central Asia through Kashmir to the entire Himalayas, is called the Khash caste. His residence is found in a village named Khaskandi, Khasdhar in Rohnu region. The Bhunda festival is celebrated as the victory of the Khaso over the Naga caste, in which the sacrifice of a family of people belonging to the 'Beda caste' who are considered de of the Naga caste is performed. The 'Budhi Diwali' celebrated by the Khaso in Nirmand is also of their victory over the primitive castes here. In this, the Khas-Nag war is staged. The Kanait (ku nd) people descended from the Khash caste are known as Khasia. This caste is mentioned repeatedly in the Mahabharata. These people also fought the Mahabharata war on behalf of the Kauravas. Descriptions of Khas have also come in Vayu Purana and Vishnu Purana. The warlords of these Khas people later formed small state associations which were called 'Mavanas'. The Khaso also adopted the polyandry system like the ancient castes. The Pandavas had also taken the practice of polyandry during exile. 
  •  Ancient Gods 

  1.  Shiv: Evidence of worship of such a deity is found by the residents of Himachal, who resemble Shiva. An example of this is the temple of Manimahesh, Kinnar Kailash, Mahasu Devta. The oldest religion of Himachal is Shaivism. Evidence of worship of Pashupati Devta is found in the Indus Valley Civilization.
  2.  Shakti: In Himachal Pradesh, Shiva worship was accompanied by Shakti Puja. It became famous in the mythological names such as Durga, Kali, Amba and Parvati. Shakti Devi in Chhatrari, Lakshana Devi in Bharmour, Brajeshwari Devi Temple, Jwalamukhi, Hedimba Devi Kullu, Naina Devi Bilaspur, Hateshwari Devi Hatkoti and Bhimakali Sarahan are ancient evidence of Shakti worship in Himachal Pradesh.
  3. Naag Devta: Ancient evidence of many temples and places of worship of Nag Devta has been found in Himachal Pradesh. 
  •  Aryans and Himachal: Aryans have entered into a branch of Central India through Central Asia. These are called Vedic Aryans. These people brought their livestock, deities and household goods and went towards the narrow kingdom of Sindhu. They took 400 years to complete their settlement. Vedic Aryans face the people of the ancient inhabitants of Kol, Kirat and Naga castes, after the Sapta from Sindhu (Punjab) to Shivalik. 
  1.  Sambar-Devodas War: Dasu king "Sambar" had 99 forts in the hills between Yamuna to Beas river. According to the Rigveda, there was a 40-years war between the Dasyu king Sambar and the Arya king Devodas. In the end, Devodas killed Sambar at a place called Udvraj. The Aryans forced Kol, Kiratas and Nagas to move from the lower valleys to the inaccessible hills. Rishi Bharadwaj was the chief advisor to the Arya king Devodas. 
  2.  Khas and Arya: The Aryans also pushed Khas to the inaccessible hills, which settled there, the Aryans merged them into their own or made slaves. 
(II) Vedic period  :- Ancient History of HP

  •  Vedic Arya : Yayati, the powerful King of the Vedic Arya, laid the foundations of his kingdom on the banks of the Saraswati river. After that his son 'Puru' became the ruler of this kingdom. 
  1.  Dashrag War: According to the Rigveda, the battle of Sudas, the son of Devodas, happened between ten Arya and Anarya King, which is called Dashragya war. Sudas's army was led by his master and Minister (Mantri) Vashishtha while Vishwamitra led the armies of the other ten kings. The army of Sudas defeated the army of ten kings (Puru State). After this Sudas became the most powerful king of the Rig Vedic period. This war happened along the river Ravi.
  •   Vedic Rishi: Vedic Rishi are connected to the Vasishtha, from Vedic Rishi, from Beas Rishi, Bilaspur to Beas Rishi, Narmand to Parashurama, Manali to Manu Rishi and Vashishtha Kund hot water chashme near Manikaran in Kullu valley. 
  1.  Jamadagni Rishi: Jamadagni Rishi is worshiped in the village of Malana in the form of Jamlu Deity. The place where the Jamadagni rishi resided was called the 'Jamu dune (Jamu ka Tibba)'. It is located near Renuka of Sirmaur district. Renuka was the wife of Rishi Jamadagni. The temple of Parashuram, son of Jamadagni Maharshi, is located near Renuka Lake. Agastya and Gautama Rishis also made their own ashram around Renuka and later went to other places to reside. 
  2.  Rishi Parashuram: Vedic Arya King Sahastrarjun (Kartavirya) when he reached Renuka, he was welcomed by the Jamadagni Rishi. Sahastrarjun demanded 'Kamdhenu' cow from Jamadagni Rishi, which the rishi refused to give. Being angry at this, he destroyed Jamadagni Rishi's ashram and robbed his cows. Parashuram organized a local union of the kings and castes and attacked Sahastrarjun and killed him. Sahastrarjun's sons killed Jamadagni Rishi. From this, Parashuram got burnt and attacked all the Kshatriyas.
  •   Mahabharata Period and Four Ancient Districts of Himachal Pradesh: Himachal is called 'Himvant' in the Rigveda. In the Mahabharata, the Pandavas had spent time in unknown hills in the upper hills of Himachal. Bhimsen married Hidimba, the deity of Kullu during his exile. Trigarta king Susharma fought on behalf of the Kauravas in the Mahabharata war. The rulers of Kashmir, Audumbar and Trigarta gave taz to Yudhishthira. The Kulind Princely State accepted the subjection of the Pandavas. In the Mahabharata, description of 4 districts - Trigarta, Audumbar, Kulind and Kuluta is found. 
  1.  Audumbars: According to Mahabharata, Audumbars were the descendant of sage Vishwamitra whr funded the Gotra of the 'Kaushik' group. Aadumbar State Coins have been found in the areas of Kangra, Pathankot, Jwalamukhi, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur confirming their habitat. These people used to worship Shiva. The description of Aadumbar caste is also found in Panini 'Ganpath'. Due to the plurality of Adumbar tree, this district is called Aadumbar. The word 'Mahadevasa' is found on the coins of Aadumbars in Brahmi and Kharosthi script which symbolize 'Mahadev'. Trident is also inscribed on coins. The Aadumbars carried copper and silver coins. Aadumbar was a devotee of Shiva and a sheepman who may have had connections with the Gaddi tribe of Chamba. 
  2.  Trigarta: Trigarta district was founded by Bhumichand. Susharma was the 231st King of his generation. Susharam Chandra assisted the Kauravas in the Mahabharata war. Susharam Chandra attacked the Pandavas, who had sheltered in the unknown, the Matasya king 'Viraat' (Hattkoti), which was its neighboring state. Trigarta, Ravi was part of the river between Beas and Sutlej. Susharam Chandra built Kangra fort and made Nagarkot his capital. Kanishka described the six state groups as part of the Trigarta. Kauravas Shakti, Jalmani, Janki, Brahmagupta, Dandki and Kaundoparastha were parts of the Trigarta. Panini has called Trigarta as an Aayudhjivi Sangh, which means the Sangh living with the help of war. Trigarta has also been mentioned in Panini's Ashtadhyayi, Rajatarangini of Kalhan, Vishnu Purana, Brihat Samhita and Mahabharata's Dronaparva. 
  3.  Kulluta: The Kulluta kingdom was the upper bank of river Beas, whose description is found in the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Vrihatsamhita, Markandeya Purana, Mudrarakshas and Matsya Purana. Its ancient capital was 'Naggar', which is found in Panini's 'Katreyadi Ganga'. The oldest coinage in the Kullu Valley is known as Raja Viyars from 100 AD. It has been written in 'Prakrit' and 'Kharosthi' languages. The princely state of Kulluta was founded by 'Vihangmani Pal' from Prayag (Allahabad). 
  4.  Kulindas: According to Kulind-Mahabharata, Arjuna conquered Kulind. The Kulind Princely State was the land between Beas, Sutlej and Yamuna covering the areas of Sirmaur, Shimla, Ambala in plains. The "Kunayat" or "Kanayat" of the present day is believed to be related to Kulind. The name of King 'Amoghbhuti' has been inscribed on the silver coin of Kulind. The mythical name of river Yamuna is 'Kalindi' and the area along with it is called Kulind. Due to the abundance of "Kulind' (Behera) trees that grow in this region, this district must have been named Kulind. In the Mahabharata, Arjuna conquered the Kulindas. Kulind Raja Subahu presented gifts to Yudhishthira in the Rajasuya Yagna. Kulindas have got the 'Bhagavata Chatreshwar Mahatman' posture of the second century. The Kulindas had a 'republican system of governance'. The Kulindas, along with the Punjab warriors and Arjunayan, succeeded in driving away the Kushanas.

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